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How many Jews were murdered during the Holocaust? While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number of Jewish victims, statistics indicate that the total was over 5,, Six million is the round figure accepted by most authorities.

While it is impossible to ascertain the exact number, the recognized figure is approximately 5,, Among the groups which the Nazis and their collaborators murdered and persecuted were: Gypsies, Serbs, Polish intelligentsia, resistance fighters from all the nations, German opponents of Nazism, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, habitual criminals, and the "anti-social," e.

Which Jewish communities suffered losses during the Holocaust? Every Jewish community in occupied Europe suffered losses during the Holocaust.

The Jewish communities in North Africa were persecuted, but the Jews in these countries were neither deported to the death camps, nor were they systematically murdered.

How many Jews were murdered in each country and what percentage of the prewar Jewish population did they constitute? Source: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust Austria 50, -- What is a death camp?

How many were there? Where were they located? A death or mass murder camp is a concentration camp with special apparatus specifically designed for systematic murder.

All were located in Poland. What does the term "Final Solution" mean and what is its origin? When did the "Final Solution" actually begin?

While thousands of Jews were murdered by the Nazis or died as a direct result of discriminatory measures instituted against Jews during the initial years of the Third Reich, the systematic murder of Jews did not begin until the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June How did the Germans define who was Jewish?

On November 14, , the Nazis issued the following definition of a Jew: Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who belonged to the Jewish community on September 15, , or joined thereafter; was married to a Jew or Jewess on September 15, , or married one thereafter; was the offspring of a marriage or extramarital liaison with a Jew on or after September 15, How did the Germans treat those who had some Jewish blood but were not classified as Jews?

Those who were not classified as Jews but who had some Jewish blood were categorized as Mischlinge hybrids and were divided into two groups: Mischlinge of the first degree--those with two Jewish grandparents; Mischlinge of the second degree--those with one Jewish grandparent.

The Mischlinge were officially excluded from membership in the Nazi Party and all Party organizations e. SA, SS, etc. Although they were drafted into the Germany Army, they could not attain the rank of officers.

They were also barred from the civil service and from certain professions. Individual Mischlinge were, however, granted exemptions under certain circumstances.

Nazi officials considered plans to sterilize Mischlinge, but this was never done. During World War II, firstdegree Mischlinge, incarcerated in concentration camps, were deported to death camps.

What were the first measures taken by the Nazis against the Jews? The first measures against the Jews included: -April 1, A boycott of Jewish shops and businesses by the Nazis.

Initially, exceptions were made for those working since August ; German veterans of World War I; and, those who had lost a father or son fighting for Germany or her allies in World War I.

It also denied non-Aryan members of the Bar the right to practice law. Exceptions were made in the cases noted above in the law regarding the civil service.

Similar laws were passed regarding Jewish law assessors, jurors, and commercial judges. Jewish doctors who were war veterans or had suffered from the war were excluded.

Initially, exceptions were made in the case of children of Jewish war veterans, who were not considered part of the quota.

In the framework of this law, a Jewish student was a child with two non-Aryan parents. Did the Nazis plan to murder the Jews from the beginning of their regime?

This question is one of the most difficult to answer. While Hitler made several references to killing Jews, both in his early writings Mein Kampf and in various speeches during the s, it is fairly 24 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide certain that the Nazis had no operative plan for the systematic annihilation of the Jews before The decision on the systematic murder of the Jews was apparently made in the late winter or the early spring of in conjunction with the decision to invade the Soviet Union.

When was the first concentration camp established and who were the first inmates? The first concentration camp, Dachau, opened on March 22, The camp's first inmates were primarily political prisoners e.

Communists or Social Democrats ; habitual criminals; homosexuals; Jehovah's Witnesses; and "anti-socials" beggars, vagrants, hawkers. Others considered problematic by the Nazis e.

Jewish writers and journalists, lawyers, unpopular industrialists, and political officials were also included. Which groups of people in Germany were considered enemies of the state by the Nazis and were therefore, persecuted?

The following groups of individuals were considered enemies of the Third Reich and were, therefore, persecuted by the Nazi authorities: Jews, Gypsies, Social Democrats, other opposing politicians, opponents of Nazism, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, habitual criminals, and "anti-socials" e.

Any individual who was considered a threat to the Nazis was in danger of being persecuted. What was the difference between the persecution of the Jews and the persecution of other groups classified by the Nazis as enemies of the Third Reich?

The Jews were the only group singled out for total systematic annihilation by the Nazis. To escape the death sentence imposed by the Nazis, the Jews could only leave Nazi-controlled Europe.

Every single Jew was to be killed according to the Nazis' plan. In the case of other criminals or enemies of the Third Reich, their families were usually not held accountable.

Thus, if a person were executed or sent to a concentration camp, it did not mean that each member of his family would meet the same fate.

In the case of the Jews, it was because of their racial origin, which could never be changed. Why were the Jews singled out for extermination?

The explanation of the Nazis' implacable hatred of the Jew rests on their distorted world view which saw history as a racial struggle.

They considered the Jews a race whose goal was world domination and who, therefore, were an obstruction to Aryan dominance.

They believed that all of history was a fight between races which should culminate in the triumph of the superior Aryan race.

Therefore, they considered it their duty to eliminate the Jews, whom they regarded as a threat. Moreover, in their eyes, the Jews' racial origin made them habitual criminals who could never be rehabilitated and were, therefore, hopelessly corrupt and inferior.

There is no doubt that other factors contributed toward Nazi hatred of the Jews and their distorted image of the Jewish people.

These included the centuries-old tradition of Christian antiSemitism which propagated a negative stereotype of the Jew as a Christ-killer, agent of the devil, and practitioner of witchcraft.

Also significant was the political anti-Semitism of the latter half of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries, which singled out the Jew as a threat to the established order of society.

These combined to point to the Jew as a target for persecution and ultimate destruction by the Nazis. What did people in Germany know about the persecution of Jews and other enemies of Nazism?

Thus, for example, everyone knew about the Boycott of April 1, , the Laws of April, and the Nuremberg Laws, because they were fully publicized.

Moreover, offenders were often publicly punished and shamed. The same holds true for subsequent anti-Jewish measures. Kristallnacht The Night of the Broken Glass was a public pogrom, carried out in full view of the entire population.

While information on the concentration camps was not publicized, a great deal of information was available to the German public, and the treatment of the inmates was generally known, although exact details were not easily obtained.

As for the implementation of the "Final Solution" and the murder of other undesirable elements, the situation was different.

The Nazis attempted to keep the murders a secret and, therefore, took precautionary measures to ensure that they would not be publicized.

Their efforts, however, were only partially successful. Thus, for example, public protests by various clergymen led to the halt of their euthanasia program in August of These protests were obviously the result of the fact that many persons were aware that the Nazis were killing the mentally ill in special institutions.

As far as the Jews were concerned, it was common knowledge in Germany that they had disappeared after having been sent to the East.

It was not exactly clear to large segments of the German population what had happened to them. Did all Germans support Hitler's plan for the persecution of the Jews?

Although the entire German population was not in agreement with Hitler's persecution of the Jews, there is no evidence of any large scale protest regarding their treatment.

There were Germans who defied the April 1, boycott and purposely bought in Jewish stores, and there were those who aided Jews to escape and to hide, but their number was very small.

Even some of those who opposed Hitler were in agreement with his anti-Jewish policies. Among the clergy, Dompropst Bernhard Lichtenberg of Berlin publicly prayed for the Jews daily and was, therefore, sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis.

Other priests were deported for their failure to cooperate with Nazi anti-Semitic policies, but the majority of the clergy complied with the directives against German Jewry and did not openly protest.

Did the people of occupied Europe know about Nazi plans for the J ews? What was their attitude? Did they cooperate with the Nazis against the Jews?

Thus, it is difficult to make generalizations. The situation also varied from country to country.

In Eastern Europe and especially in Poland, Russia, and the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania , there was much more knowledge of the "Final Solution" because it was implemented in those areas.

Elsewhere, the local population had less information on the details of the "Final Solution. This was particularly true in Eastern Europe, where there was a long standing tradition of virulent anti-Semitism, and where various national groups, which had been under Soviet domination Latvians, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians , fostered hopes that the Germans would restore their independence.

In several countries in Europe, there were local fascist movements which allied themselves with the Nazis and participated in anti-Jewish actions; for example, the Iron Guard in Romania and the Arrow Guard in Slovakia.

On the other hand, in every country in Europe, there were courageous individuals who risked their lives to save Jews. In several countries, there were groups which aided Jews, e.

Did the Allies and the people in the Free World know about the events going on in Europe? The various steps taken by the Nazis prior to the "Final Solution" were all taken publicly and were, therefore, reported in the press.

Once the war began, obtaining information became more difficult, but reports, nonetheless, were published regarding the fate of the Jews.

Thus, although the Nazis did not publicize the "Final Solution," less than one year after the systematic murder of the Jews was initiated, details began to filter out to the West.

The first report which spoke of a plan for the mass murder of Jews was smuggled out of Poland by the Bund a Jewish socialist political organization and reached England in the spring of The details of this report reached the Allies from Vatican sources as well as from informants in Switzerland and the Polish underground.

Eventually, the American Government confirmed the reports to Jewish leaders in late November They were publicized immediately thereafter.

While the details were neither complete nor wholly accurate, the Allies were aware of most of what the Germans had done to the Jews at a relatively early date.

What was the response of the Allies to the persecution of the Jews? Could they have done anything to help? The response of the Allies to the persecution and destruction of European Jewry was inadequate.

Only in January was an agency, the War Refugee Board, established for the express purpose of saving the victims of Nazi persecution.

Prior to that date, little action was taken. On December 17, , the Allies issued a condemnation of Nazi atrocities against the Jews, but this was the only such declaration made prior to Moreover, no attempt was made to call upon the local population in Europe to refrain from assisting the Nazis in their systematic murder of the Jews.

Other practical measures which were not taken concerned the refugee problem. Tens of thousands of Jews sought to enter the United States, but they were barred from doing so by the stringent American immigration policy.

Even the relatively small quotas of visas which existed were often not filled, although the number of applicants was usually many times the number of available places.

Conferences held in Evian, France and Bermuda to solve the refugee problem did not contribute to a solution. At the former, the countries invited by the United States and Great Britain were told that no country would be asked to change its immigration laws.

Moreover, the British agreed to participate only if Palestine were not considered. At Bermuda, the delegates did not deal with the fate of those still in Nazi hands, but rather with those who had already escaped to neutral lands.

Who are the "Righteous Among the Nations"? There were "Righteous Among the Nations" in every country overrun or allied with the Nazis, and their deeds often led to the rescue of Jewish lives.

Yad Vashem, the Israeli national remembrance authority for the Holocaust, bestows special honors upon these individuals. To date, after carefully evaluating each case, Yad Vashem has recognized approximately 10, "Righteous Gentiles" in three different categories of recognition.

The country with the most "Righteous Gentiles" is Poland. The country with the highest proportion per capita is the Netherlands. The figure of 10, is far from complete as many cases were never reported, frequently because those who were helped have died.

Moreover, this figure only includes those who actually risked their lives to save Jews, and not those who merely extended aid.

Were Jews in the Free World aware of the persecution and destruction of European Jewry and, if so, what was their response? The news of the persecution and destruction of European Jewry must be divided into two periods.

The measures taken by the Nazis prior to the "Final Solution" were all taken publicly and were, therefore, in all the newspapers. Once the war began, obtaining information became more difficult, but, nonetheless, reports were published regarding the fate of the Jews.

The "Final Solution" was not openly publicized by the Nazis, and thus it took longer for information to reach the "Free World. The response of the Jews in the "Free World" must also be divided into two periods, before and after the publication of information on the "Final Solution.

Unfortunately, the views on how to best achieve these goals differed and effective action was often hampered by the lack of internal unity.

Moreover, very few Jewish leaders actually realized the scope of the danger. Following the publication of the news of the "Final Solution," attempts were made to launch rescue attempts via neutral states and to send aid to Jews under Nazi rule.

These attempts, which were far from adequate, were further hampered by the lack of assistance and obstruction from government channels.

Additional attempts to achieve internal unity during this period failed. Did the Jews in Europe realize what was going to happen to them?

Regarding the knowledge of the "Final Solution" by its potential victims, several key points must be kept in mind.

First of all, the Nazis did not publicize the "Final Solution," nor did they ever openly speak about it. Every attempt was made to fool the victims and, thereby, prevent or minimize resistance.

Thus, deportees were always told that they were going to be "resettled. Following arrival in certain concentration camps, the inmates were forced to write home about the wonderful conditions in their new place of residence.

The Germans made every effort to ensure secrecy. In addition, the notion that human beings--let alone the civilized Germans--could build camps with special apparatus for mass murder seemed unbelievable in those days.

Escapees who did return to the ghetto frequently encountered disbelief when they related their experiences. Even Jews who had heard of the camps had difficulty believing reports of what the Germans were doing there.

Inasmuch as each of the Jewish communities in Europe were almost completely isolated, there was a limited number of places with available information.

Thus, there is no doubt that many European Jews were not aware of the "Final Solution," a fact that has been corroborated by German documents and the testimonies of survivors.

How many Jews were able to escape from Europe prior to the Holocaust? It is difficult to arrive at an exact figure for the number of Jews who were able to escape from Europe prior to World War II, since the available statistics are incomplete.

From , , German and Austrian Jews left their homes. Some immigrated to countries later overrun by the Nazis. During the years , approximately 35, emigrated from Bohemia and Moravia Czechoslovakia.

Shanghai, the only place in the world for which one did not need an entry visa, received approximately 20, European Jews mostly of German origin who fled their homelands.

Immigration figures for countries of refuge during this period are not available. In addition, many countries did not provide a breakdown of immigration statistics according to ethnic groups.

It is impossible, therefore, to ascertain. Various organizations attempted to facilitate the emigration of the Jews and nonJews persecuted as Jews from Germany.

Among the programs launched were the "Transfer Agreement" between the Jewish Agency and the German government whereby immigrants to Palestine were allowed to transfer their funds to that country in conjunction with the import of German goods to Palestine.

Other efforts focused on retraining prospective emigrants in order to increase the number of those eligible for visas, since some countries barred the entry of members of certain professions.

Other groups attempted to help in various phases of refugee work: selection of candidates for emigration, transportation of refugees, aid in immigrant absorption, etc.

Some groups attempted to facilitate increased emigration by enlisting the aid of governments and international organizations in seeking refugee havens.

The League of Nations established an agency to aid refugees but its success was extremely limited due to a lack of political power and adequate funding.

The United States and Great Britain convened a conference in at Evian, France, seeking a solution to the refugee problem. With the exception of the Dominican Republic, the nations assembled refused to change their stringent immigration regulations, which were instrumental in preventing large-scale immigration.

In , the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, which had been established at the Evian Conference, initiated negotiations with leading German officials in an attempt to arrange for the relocation of a significant portion of German Jewry.

However, these talks failed. Efforts were made for the illegal entry of Jewish immigrants to Palestine as early as July , but were later halted until July Large-scale efforts were resumed under the Mosad le-Aliya Bet, Revisionist Zionists, and private parties.

Attempts were also made, with some success, to facilitate the illegal entry of refugees to various countries in Latin America.

The key reason for the relatively low number of refugees leaving Europe prior to World War II was the stringent immigration policies adopted by the prospective host countries.

In the United States, for example, the number of immigrants was limited to , per year, divided by country of origin.

Moreover, the entry requirements were so stringent that available quotas were often not filled. Schemes to facilitate immigration outside the quotas never materialized as the majority of the American public consistently opposed the entry of additional refugees.

Other countries, particularly 29 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide those in Latin America, adopted immigration policies that were similar or even more restrictive, thus closing the doors to prospective immigrants from the Third Reich.

Great Britain, while somewhat more liberal than the United States on the entry of immigrants, took measures to severely limit Jewish immigration to Palestine.

In May , the British issued a "White Paper" stipulating that only 75, Jewish immigrants would be allowed to enter Palestine over the course of the next five years 10, a year, plus an additional 25, This decision prevented hundreds of thousands of Jews from escaping Europe.

The countries most able to accept large numbers of refugees consistently refused to open their gates. Although a solution to the refugee problem was the agenda of the Evian Conference, only the Dominican Republic was willing to approve large-scale immigration.

The United States and Great Britain proposed resettlement havens in under-developed areas e. Guyana, formerly British Guiana, and the Philippines , but these were not suitable alternatives.

Two important factors should be noted. At that time, there were no operative plans to kill the Jews. The goal was to induce them to leave, if necessary, by the use of force.

It is also important to recognize the attitude of German Jewry. While many German Jews were initially reluctant to emigrate, the majority sought to do so following Kristallnacht The Night of Broken Glass , November , Had havens been available, more people would certainly have emigrated.

He considered this area the natural territory of the German people, an area to which they were entitled by right, the Lebensraum living space that Germany needed so badly for its farmers to have enough soil.

Hitler maintained that these areas were needed for the Aryan race to preserve itself and assure its dominance.

There is no question that Hitler knew that, by launching the war in the East, the Nazis would be forced to deal with serious racial problems in view of the composition of the population in the Eastern areas.

Thus, the Nazis had detailed plans for the subjugation of the Slavs, who would be reduced to serfdom status and whose primary function would be to serve as a source of cheap labor for Aryan farmers.

Those elements of the local population, who were of higher racial stock, would be taken to Germany where they would be raised as Aryans. In Hitler's mind, the solution of the Jewish problem was also linked to the conquest of the eastern territories.

These areas had large Jewish populations and they would have to be dealt with accordingly. While at this point there was still no operative plan for mass annihilation, it was clear to Hitler that some sort of comprehensive solution would have to be found.

There was also talk of establishing a Jewish reservation either in Madagascar or near Lublin, Poland. When he made the decisive decision to invade the Soviet Union, Hitler also gave instructions to embark upon the "Final Solution," the systematic murder of European Jewry.

Was there any opposition to the Nazis within Germany? Throughout the course of the Third Reich, there were different groups who opposed the Nazi regime and certain Nazi policies.

They engaged in resistance at different times and with various methods, aims, and scope. From the beginning, leftist political groups and a number of disappointed conservatives were in opposition; at a later date, church groups, government officials, students and businessmen also joined.

After the tide of the war was reversed, elements within the military played an active role in opposing Hitler.

At no point, however, was there a unified resistance movement within Germany. Did the Jews try to fight against the Nazis?

To what extent were such efforts successful? Despite the difficult conditions to which Jews were subjected in Nazi-occupied Europe, many engaged in armed resistance against the Nazis.

This resistance can be divided into three basic 30 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide types of armed activities: ghetto revolts, resistance in concentration and death camps, and partisan warfare.

The Warsaw Ghetto revolt, which lasted for about five weeks beginning on April 19, , is probably the best-known example of armed Jewish resistance, but there were many ghetto revolts in which Jews fought against the Nazis.

Jewish partisan units were active in many areas, including Baranovichi, Minsk, Naliboki forest, and Vilna. While the sum total of armed resistance efforts by Jews was not militarily overwhelming and did not play a significant role in the defeat of Nazi Germany, these acts of resistance did lead to the rescue of an undetermined number of Jews, Nazi casualties, and untold damage to German property and self-esteem.

What was the Judenrat? The Judenrat was the council of Jews, appointed by the Nazis in each Jewish community or ghetto.

According to the directive from Reinhard Heydrich of the SS on September 21, , a Judenrat was to be established in every concentration of Jews in the occupied areas of Poland.

They were led by noted community leaders. Enforcement of Nazi decrees affecting Jews and administration of the affairs of the Jewish community were the responsibilities of the Judenrat.

These functions placed the Judenrat in a highly responsible, but controversial position, and many of their actions continue to be the subject of debate among historians.

While the intentions of the heads of councils were rarely challenged, their tactics and methods have been questioned.

Among the most controversial were Mordechai Rumkowski in Lodz and Jacob Gens in Vilna, both of whom justified the sacrifice of some Jews in order to save others.

Leaders and members of the Judenrat were guided, for the most part, by a sense of communal responsibility, but lacked the power and the means to successfully thwart Nazi plans for annihilation of all Jews.

Did international organizations, such as the Red Cross, aid victims of Nazi persecution? Its activities can basically be divided into three periods: 1.

September, - June 22, The IRC confined its activities to sending food packages to those in distress in Nazi-occupied Europe. Packages were distributed in accordance with the directives of the German Red Cross.

Throughout this time, the IRC complied with the German contention that those in ghettos and camps constituted a threat to the security of the Reich and, therefore, were not allowed to receive aid from the IRC.

June 22, - Summer Despite numerous requests by Jewish organizations, the IRC refused to publicly protest the mass annihilation of Jews and non-Jews in the camps, or to intervene on their behalf.

It maintained that any public action on behalf of those under Nazi rule would ultimately prove detrimental to their welfare.

At the same time, the IRC attempted to send food parcels to those individuals whose addresses it possessed.

The IRC request came following the receipt of information about the harsh living conditions in the camp. Such a visit was not permitted until shortly before the end of the war.

In reality, the majority were subsequently deported to Auschwitz where they were murdered. How did Germany's allies, the Japanese and the Italians, treat the Jews in the lands they occupied?

Moreover, in their occupied areas of France, Greece, and Yugoslavia, the Italians protected the Jews and did not allow them to be deported.

However, when the Germans overthrew the Badoglio government in , the Jews of Italy, as well as those under Italian protection in occupied areas, were subject to the "Final Solution.

Despite pressure by their German allies urging them to take stringent measures against Jews, the Japanese refused to do so.

Refugees were allowed to enter Japan until the spring of , and Jews in Japanese-occupied China were treated well.

In the summer and fall of , refugees in Japan were transferred to Shanghai but no measures were taken against them until early , when they were forced to move into the Hongkew Ghetto.

While conditions were hardly satisfactory, they were far superior to those in the ghettos under German control. What was the attitude of the churches vis-a-vis the persecution of the Jews?

Did the Pope ever speak out against the Nazis? Although he stated that the myths of "race" and "blood" were contrary to Christian teaching in a papal encyclical, March , he neither mentioned nor criticized anti-Semitism.

Although as early as the Vatican received detailed information on the murder of Jews in concentration camps, the Pope confined his public statements to expressions of sympathy for the victims of injustice and to calls for a more humane conduct of the war.

Despite the lack of response by Pope Pius XII, several papal nuncios played an important role in rescue efforts, particularly the nuncios in Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, and Turkey.

It is not clear to what, if any, extent they operated upon instructions from the Vatican. Church records were supplied to state authorities who assisted in the detection of people of Jewish origin, and efforts to aid the persecuted were confined to Catholic non-Aryans.

While Catholic clergymen protested the Nazi euthanasia program, few, with the exception of Bernhard Lichtenberg, spoke out against the murder of the Jews.

In Western Europe, Catholic clergy spoke out publicly against the persecution of the Jews and actively helped in the rescue of Jews.

In Eastern Europe, however, the Catholic clergy was generally more reluctant to help. Jozef Tiso, the head of state of Slovakia and a Catholic priest, actively cooperated with the Germans as did many other Catholic priests.

The response of Protestant and Eastern Orthodox churches varied. In Germany, for example, Nazi supporters within Protestant churches complied with the anti-Jewish legislation and even excluded Christians of Jewish origin from membership.

Pastor Martin Niemoeller's Confessing Church defended the rights of Christians of Jewish origin within the church, but did not publicly protest their 32 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide persecution, nor did it condemn the measures taken against the Jews, with the exception of a memorandum sent to Hitler in May In occupied Europe, the position of the Protestant churches varied.

In other countries Bulgaria, Greece, and Yugoslavia , some Orthodox church leaders intervened on behalf of the Jews and took steps which, in certain cases, led to the rescue of many Jews.

How many Nazi criminals were there? How many were brought to justice? We do not know the exact number of Nazi criminals since the available documentation is incomplete.

Those who committed war crimes include those individuals who initiated, planned and directed the killing operations, as well as those with whose knowledge, agreement, and passive participation the murder of European Jewry was carried out.

Also included are hundreds of thousands of members of the Gestapo, the SS, the Einsatzgruppen, the police and the armed forces, as well as those bureaucrats who were involved in the persecution and destruction of European Jewry.

In addition, there were thousands of individuals throughout occupied Europe who cooperated with the Nazis in killing Jews and other innocent civilians.

We do not have complete statistics on the number of criminals brought to justice, but the number is certainly far less than the total of those who were involved in the "Final Solution.

Afterwards, the Allied occupation authorities continued to try Nazis, with the most significant trials held in the American zone the Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings.

In total, 5, Nazi criminals were convicted between in the American, British and French zones, in addition to an unspecified number of people who were tried in the Soviet zone.

In addition, the United Nations War Crimes Commission prepared lists of war criminals who were later tried by the judicial authorities of Allied countries and those countries under Nazi rule during the war.

The latter countries have conducted a large number of trials regarding crimes committed in their lands. The Polish tribunals, for example, tried approximately 40, persons, and large numbers of criminals were tried in other countries.

In all, about 80, Germans have been convicted for committing crimes against humanity, while the number of local collaborators is in the tens of thousands.

Special mention should be made of Simon Wiesenthal, whose activities led to the capture of over one thousand Nazi criminals.

Courts in Germany began, in some cases, to function as early as By , almost 80, Germans had been investigated and over 6, had been convicted.

In , the Federal Republic of Germany FRG; West Germany established a special agency in Ludwigsburg to aid in the investigation of crimes committed by Germans outside Germany, an agency which, since its establishment, has been involved in hundreds of major investigations.

One of the major problems regarding the trial of war criminals in the FRG as well as in Austria has been the fact that the sentences have been disproportionately lenient for the crimes committed.

Some trials were also conducted in the former German Democratic Republic GDR; East Germany , yet no statistics exist as to the number of those convicted or the extent of their sentences.

What were the Nuremberg trials? The term "Nuremberg Trials" refers to two sets of trials of Nazi war criminals conducted after the war.

It consisted of the trials of the 33 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide political, military and economic leaders of the Third Reich captured by the Allies.

While the judges on the NMT were American citizens, the tribunal considered itself international.

Twelve high-ranking officials were tried, among whom were cabinet ministers, diplomats, doctors involved in medical experiments, and SS officers involved in crimes in concentration camps or in genocide in Nazi-occupied areas.

Example: Anne Frank and her family lived in secret annex in Amsterdam for nearly two years until they were turned in and arrested.

The Nazis appropriated the term and applied it to people of Northern European racial background. Established in as a concentration camp, it became an extermination camp in early Farben labor camp, also known as Buna.

In addition, Auschwitz had numerous sub-camps. They were later joined by Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, and Slovakia. Originally established in as a camp for Jewish forced labor, the Germans began construction of an extermination camp at Belzec on November 1, , as part of Aktion Reinhard.

By the time the camp ceased operations in January , more than , persons had been murdered there.

Although this camp was designated for persons who were slated to be exchanged with 35 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide German nationals in Allied countries, only a few of the Jews who were brought to Bergen-Belsen were actually set free by the Germans.

At the end of and early in , thousands of Jewish prisoners who were forcibly marched from the east began arriving in the camp. Due to the deteriorating conditions, a typhus epidemic broke out and by mid-April , 35, prisoners had perished.

On April 5, , the camp was liberated by British forces, who were appalled to find most of the 60, inmates in critical condition.

During the next five days, 14, prisoners died, and in the following weeks, another 14, perished. While it was primarily a labor camp in the German concentration camp system and not an extermination center, thousands died there from exposure, over-work, and execution.

Many Jews from other camps were forcibly marched there by the Nazis in early It was the first camp where mass executions were carried out by means of gas.

A total of , people were exterminated at Chelmno. The Simon Wiesenthal Center Civil Rights A civil right is an enforceable right or privilege, which if interfered with by another gives rise to an action for injury.

Examples of civil rights are freedom of speech, press, and assembly; the right to vote; freedom from involuntary servitude; and the right to equality in public places.

Discrimination occurs when the civil rights of an individual are denied or interfered with because of their membership in a particular group or class.

The Division enforces federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, disability, religion, familial status and national origin.

During the Holocaust, crematoria were installed in several camps, among them the extermination camps and the Theresienstadt ghetto.

One of the first wartime ordinances imposed a strict curfew on Jewish individuals and prohibited Jews from entering designated areas in many German cities.

Similar curfews were instated in many German-occupied countries throughout the Holocaust. Gypsies, Russian prisonersof-war, ill prisoners.

All were located in occupied Poland. Such marched began when the German armed forces, trapped between the Soviets to the east and the advancing Allied troops from the west, attempted to prevent the liberation of camp inmates in the harsh winter of Treated with tremendous brutality during the forced marches, thousands were shot or died of starvation or exhaustion.

The Germans would begin the deportations with the weaker strata the poor, refugees. The other sectors of society held on to the illusion that they would be left alone.

In many cases, the deportation orders were given to the Judenrat suddenly, often around the Jewish holidays when awareness was reduced.

Local police were charged with carrying out the Aktion round-up of Jews and the Jewish police was also tasked with participating in the round-up.

The Jews were ordered to gather in a specific location, usually close to a train station, and to bring with them only a few possessions.

During the Aktion anyone that did not follow the order to gather or could not keep pace with the others was shot. At the train station the Jews were loaded into crowded cattle cars without proper ventilation.

The cars were sealed from the outside and the Jews were kept in the cars for days without water or food until they reached their destination.

Many perished as a result of the conditions on the train. Discrimination is an action that can follow prejudicial thinking.

Many survivors of the Holocaust who had no home or country to which 37 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide they could return were among the displaced persons.

He played a central role in the deportation of over 1. With the help of Catholic Church officials, he fled to Argentina where he lived under a number of aliases.

The proceedings before a district court in Jerusalem drew international attention, and historians roundly credit coverage of the trial famously in Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem with awakening public interest in the Holocaust.

Eichmann was found guilty of crimes against the Jewish people. He was hanged at midnight between May 31 and June 1, Their victims, primarily Jews, were executed by shooting and were buried in mass graves from which they were later exhumed and burned.

However, the Nazi euthanasia program took on quite a different meaning: the taking of eugenic measures to improve the quality of the German "race.

Roosevelt in July to discuss the problem of refugees. Thirty-two countries met at Evian-les-Bains, France. However, not much was accomplished, since most western countries were reluctant to accept Jewish refugees.

Gypsies, Russian prisoners-of-war, ill prisoners. The Simon Wiesenthal Center FACISM A social and political ideology that has its primary guiding principle that the state or nation is the highest priority, rather than personal or individual freedoms.

The program was deceptively disguised as "resettlement in the East. Rationing controls the size of the ration, one's allotted portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time.

Every family was issued a set number of each kind of stamp based on the size of the family, ages of children and income. This allowed the Allies and mainly America to supply huge amounts of food to the troops and later provided a surplus to aid in the rebuilding of Europe with aid to Germany after food supplies were destroyed.

Nearly all food was rationed in Europe during World War II in both occupied zones and liberated areas. In the summer of , the Germans commenced murdering Jews en masse in a systematic fashion.

After several months, it became clear to them that the mass murder method they had previously employed, of shooting, was neither quick nor efficient enough to serve their needs.

Thus, based on the experience gained in the Euthanasia Program, they began using gas chambers to annihilate European Jewry.

The Nazis continued to search for a more efficient method of mass murder. After some experimentation on Soviet prisoners of war, the Nazis found a commercial insecticide called Zyklon B to be an appropriate gas for their needs.

All of these gas chambers utilized Zyklon B to kill their victims. Established mostly in Eastern Europe e.

Lodz, Warsaw, Vilna, Riga, Minsk , and characterized by overcrowding, starvation and forced labor. All ghettos were eventually destroyed when the Jews were deported to death camps.

Gypsies first appeared in Western Europe in the 15th century. By the 16th century, they had spread throughout Europe, where they were persecuted almost as relentlessly as the Jews.

The gypsies occupied a special place in Nazi racist theories. It is believed that approximately , perished during the Holocaust. For the purposes of collecting statistics, Congress has defined a hate crime as a "criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, ethnic origin or sexual orientation.

Youth were subject to intensive propaganda regarding racial and national superiority. Later it was applied to the destruction of six million Jews by the Nazis and their followers in Europe between the years The Witnesses base their beliefs on the Bible and have no official ministers.

Recognizing only the kingdom of God, the Witnesses refuse to salute the flag, to bear arms in war, and to participate in the affairs of government.

This doctrine brought them into conflict with National Socialism. They were considered enemies of the state and were relentlessly persecuted.

It took the form of a yellow Star of David or an armband with a Star of David on it. Beginning in the mid - s, the Nazis started economically exploiting the prisoners in the camps.

The SS 40 Holocaust Learning Trunk Project: Teaching Guide authorities hired out its human resource - the labor of the camp inmates - to various German companies in order to make a profit.

German control of large parts of Europe presented a wide range of possibilities for continued economic exploitation of what they considered racially inferior populations.

Consequently, hundreds of camps were established for forced labor. The harsh working conditions caused the deaths of a substantial number of prisoners.

The SS authorities even developed the concept of "extermination through labor," which was implemented with regard to some of the prisoners, especially the Jews.

Conditions were brutal even by concentration camp standards. Nearly , prisoners of various nationalities were either worked or tortured to death at the camp before liberating American troops arrived in May Majdanek was liberated by the Red Army in July Memoir is autobiographical writing, but not all autobiographical writing follows the criteria for memoir.

In the Third Reich the term was used to denote people who were of partial Aryan ancestry. Jews were defined by Nazis as people with at least three full Jewish grandparents.

A Mischling of the first degree, or half-Jew, was a person with two Jewish grandparents who did not belong to the Jewish religion or who was not married to a Jew as of September 15, A Mischling of the second degree, or quarter-Jew, was someone with one Jewish grandparent or an Aryan married to a Jew.

The Mischlinge issue was very important to Adolf Hitler. The policy in Germany was to assimilate second degree Mischlinge into the Aryan nation, while first degree Mischlinge were to be considered like Jews.

In other countries, policies differed. Over the winter of , some Nazis proposed that all Mischlinge of the first degree be sterilized; however, nothing ever came of this because the Nazis feared the reactions of the many Germans related to the Mischlinge.

The party was taken over by Adolf Hitler in the early s. The swastika was the party symbol. Germans were said to be the natural rulers of the world and, in order to achieve that position, influence of the Jews needed to be ended.

Non-alignment is the implementation of neutralism by avoiding military alliances. A sovereign state that reserves the right to become a belligerent if attacked by a party to the war is in a condition of armed neutrality.

Neutralism or a "neutralist policy" is a foreign policy position wherein a state intends to remain neutral in future wars. During World War II, these countries took no official side during the war in their hopes to avoid being attacked by the Axis Powers or in becoming involved in the aerial attacks of the Axis and Allied Powers.

The first, the Reich Citizenship Law, deprived German Jews of their citizenship and all rights pertinent thereto.

The second, the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor, outlawed marriages of Jews and non-Jews, forbade Jews from employing German females of childbearing age, and prohibited Jews from displaying the German flag.

Many additional regulations were attached to the two main statutes, which provided the basis for removing Jews from all spheres of German political, social, and economic life.

The Nuremberg Laws carefully established definitions of Jewishness based on bloodlines. The celebration is organized into a feast called the Passover Seder.

In most cases, these opinions are founded on suspicions, ignorance and the irrational fear of or hatred of other races, religions or nationalities.

The group took its name from the "quaking" that is sometimes associated with the agitation of religious feeling.

Because of the involvement of the AFSC in relief services throughout Europe before World War II, the Nazis treated the Quakers with respect and permitted them to continue welfare activities in southern France during the occupation.

Even seemingly positive stereotypes that link a person or group to a specific positive trait can have negative consequences.

Sobibor opened in May and closed one day after a rebellion of the Jewish prisoners on October 14, Originally organized as Hitler's personal bodyguard, the SS was transformed into a giant organization by Heinrich Himmler.

Although various SS units were assigned to the battlefield, the organization is best known for carrying out the destruction of European Jewry.

Louis was a refugee ship that left Hamburg in the spring of , bound for Cuba. Cuba refused entry to most of its Jewish passengers.

No country, including the United States, was willing to accept them. The ship finally returned to Europe where most of the refugees were finally granted entry into England, Holland, France and Belgium.

Many of its passengers died in Nazi concentration camps after occupation of Holland, France and Belgium.

Jews in Nazi-occupied lands often were first deported to transit camps such as Westerbork in the Netherlands, or Drancy in France, en route to the killing centers in occupied Poland.

The transit camps were usually the last stop before deportation to an extermination camp. By November , approximately , Jews, many from Warsaw, were murdered in Treblinka.

They tolerated a lively cultural life of theater, music, lectures, and art in order to have it shown to officials of the International Red Cross.

It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka. At this conference, the apparatus was coordinated to carry out the total annihilation of European Jews.

Almost 45, Jews died there in alone, due to overcrowding, forced labor, lack of sanitation, starvation, and disease. The uprising, led by Mordecai Anielewicz, was the first instance in occupied Europe of an uprising by an urban population.

The transit camp operated from to with the assistance of the Dutch military police and the SS. Deportation trains left the camp every Tuesday from July of to September of , deporting a total of 97, Jews.

More than half of those deported from Westerbork went to Auschwitz where they were most likely killed upon arrival.

It developed as a fusion of Hebrew and Aramaic into German dialects with the infusion of Slavic and traces of Romance languages. It is written in the Hebrew alphabet.

Margot Frank is her older sister. Amsterdam, the country's largest city, has a Jewish population of about 75, and increases to over 79, in Jews represented less than 10 percent of the city's total population.

More than 10, of these were foreign Jews who had found refuge in Amsterdam in the s. September 15 Otto Frank sets up his Opekta business in Amsterdam and becomes director.

November December Edith moves to the Netherlands. Margot moves to the Netherlands. Anne enrolls in a Montessori school in Amsterdam. Otto Frank starts a second company, Pectacon, in partnership with Hermann van Pels, a Jewish butcher, who has also fled from Germany with his family.

May 14 The Netherlands surrenders to Germany. The Germans establish a civilian administration dominated by the SS. While Anne inherited her father's ambivalence towards the Torah, Margot followed her mother's example and became involved in Amsterdam's Jewish community.

She took Hebrew classes, attended synagogue, and in joined a Dutch Zionist club for young people who wanted to immigrate to Land of Israel to found a Jewish state, where, according to Anne, she wished to become a midwife.

August December The family visits the beach at Zandvoort in the Netherlands. Opekta and Pectacon move to a new address in Amsterdam: Prinsengracht Almost all of them were murdered in Mauthausen.

December Jews are forbidden to own their own businesses, so Otto appoints Mr. Kleiman and Mr. Kugler as directors, but remains in charge behind the scenes.

Within Amsterdam, Jews are restricted to certain sections of the city. Foreign and stateless Jews are sent directly to the Westerbork transit camp.

June 12 Anne receives an autograph book for her birthday that she had pointed out to Otto in a shop window.

She decides to use it as a diary. July The Germans begin mass deportations of Jews to extermination camps in occupied Poland, primarily to Auschwitz but also to Sobibor.

The city administration, the Dutch municipal police, and Dutch railway workers all cooperate in the deportations, as do the Dutch Nazi party NSB.

German and Dutch Nazi authorities arrest Jews in the streets of Amsterdam and take them to the assembly point for deportations - the municipal theater building, the Hollandsche Schouwburg.

When several hundred people are assembled in the building and in the back courtyard, they are transferred to Westerbork.

July 6 The Frank family goes into hiding in the secret annex hidden at Prinsengracht July 13 Hermann van Pels, his wife, Auguste, and his son, Peter, go into hiding in the secret annex.

Hermann is the son of a Dutch father and a German mother. When he married Auguste in she became a Dutch citizen because according to law women automatically took on the nationality of their husbands.

On November 8, , their son Peter was born. On June 26, , they moved to the Netherlands. Hermann began working with Otto Frank in Miep described Auguste as stylish and coquettish.

The Van Pels family provides ample excitement, which can sometimes be fun but there are also a lot of major arguments.

Van Pels becomes the cook of the house. She likes discussing politics, and invariably gets into arguments with her husband.

October The Germans send hundreds of Jews and their families in Amsterdam to Westerbork transit camp. All are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau within a few weeks.

November 6 Fritz Pfeffer goes into hiding in the secret annex. Pfeffer was born on April 30, , in Giessen, Germany.

His parents were Jewish and had a clothing store in the center of the city. After high school Fritz studied to be a dentist in Berlin, where he started a dental practice after his study.

In he married Vera Bythiner. Their son Werner was born on April 3, The marriage ended in divorce in Pfeffer received custody of his son.

Following his divorce, Pfeffer met Charlotte Kaletta, a Catholic. The Nuremberg Laws of , outlawing marriages between Jews and nonJews, made it impossible for them to marry.

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