Apollo 13 Warum „Apollo 13“ bei der Nasa als „erfolgreicher Fehlschlag“ gilt
Apollo 13 war die siebte bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Apollo-Programm der US-amerikanischen Raumfahrtbehörde NASA mit dem Ziel der dritten bemannten Mondlandung. Apollo 13 war die siebte bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Apollo-Programm der US-amerikanischen Raumfahrtbehörde NASA mit dem Ziel der dritten. "Houston, wir haben ein Problem" - die Astronauten von "Apollo 13" waren auf dem Weg zum Mond, als ein Sauerstofftank explodierte.
Apollo 13 war die siebte bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Apollo-Programm der US-amerikanischen Raumfahrtbehörde NASA mit dem Ziel der dritten. "Houston, wir haben ein Problem" - die Astronauten von "Apollo 13" waren auf dem Weg zum Mond, als ein Sauerstofftank explodierte. Apollo 13 war die siebte bemannte Raumfahrtmission im Apollo-Programm der US-amerikanischen Raumfahrtbehörde NASA mit dem Ziel der dritten bemannten Mondlandung.
Apollo 13 - Der WassermannAuch im Nördlinger Ries, einem alten Einschlagskrater in Süddeutschland, bereiteten sich "Apollo"-Astronauten auf ihre geologische Feldarbeit vor. Nur sie verfügte über den lebensnotwendigen Hitzeschild für den Wiedereintritt in die Erdatmosphäre. Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Icon: Menü Menü. Höchste Konzentration im Kontrollzentrum in Houston. Das wohl berühmteste Zitat der Raumfahrtgeschichte sind die "It's one small step for a man"-Worte von Neil Armstrong, als er als erster Mensch den Mond learn more here. Unabhängig davon endet die Nutzungsbefugnis für ein Video, wenn es der NDR aus rechtlichen insbesondere urheber- medien- oder presserechtlichen Gründen nicht weiter zur Verbreitung bringen kann. Aber: kein Signal nach vier, und auch keines nach fünf Minuten.
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Two business rivals who despise each other in real life unwittingly fall in love over the Internet. Based on the true story of the ill-fated 13th Apollo mission bound for the moon.
Astronauts Lovell, Haise and Swigert were scheduled to fly Apollo 14, but are moved up to It's , and The US has already achieved their lunar landing goal, so there's little interest in this "routine" flight..
Written by Rob Hartill. My first job as an engineering graduate in was with NASA. I was fortunate enough to have been a Project Engineer on the Apollo Program, and I am familiar with the technical aspects of the program.
But this movie was not as much about the technical aspects of the program as it was about a thrilling, real-life drama that just happened to take place during a glorious time and a once-in-a-lifetime project.
Despite all of the little technical errors, Ron Howard and his crew have put together a superb film, one that deserved the 9 Academy Award nominations which it received.
I wish that present-day film-makers would concentrate on happy situations, like this one, instead of the constant barrage of drivel to which we, the movie-going public, are made subject.
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External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Jerry Bostick and other Flight Dynamics Officers FIDOs were anxious both to shorten the travel time and to move splashdown to the Pacific Ocean , where the main recovery forces were located.
One option would shave 36 hours off the return time, but required jettisoning the SM; this would expose the CM's heat shield to space during the return journey, something for which it had not been designed.
The FIDOs also proposed other solutions. While preparing for the burn the crew was told that the S-IVB had impacted the Moon as planned, leading Lovell to quip, "Well, at least something worked on this flight.
The astronauts used the one star available whose position could not be obscured — the Sun. The LM carried enough oxygen, but that still left the problem of removing carbon dioxide , which was absorbed by canisters of lithium hydroxide pellets.
The LM's stock of canisters, meant to accommodate two astronauts for 45 hours on the Moon, was not enough to support three astronauts for the return journey to Earth.
Engineers on the ground devised a way to bridge the gap, using plastic, covers ripped from procedures manuals, duct tape, and other items.
The procedure for building the device was read to the crew by CAPCOM Joseph Kerwin over the course of an hour, and it was built by Swigert and Haise; carbon dioxide levels began dropping immediately.
Lovell later described this improvisation as "a fine example of cooperation between ground and space". The CSM's electricity came from fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, but the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries which did not, so both electrical power and water needed for equipment cooling as well as drinking would be critical.
LM power consumption was reduced to the lowest level possible;  Swigert was able to fill some drinking bags with water from the CM's water tap,  but even assuming rationing of personal consumption, Haise initially calculated they would run out of water for cooling about five hours before reentry.
This seemed acceptable because the systems of Apollo 11's LM, once jettisoned in lunar orbit, had continued to operate for seven to eight hours even with the water cut off.
Lovell considered having the crew don their spacesuits, but decided this would be too hot. All three astronauts were cold, especially Swigert, who had got his feet wet while filling the water bags and had no lunar overshoes since he had not been scheduled to walk on the Moon.
As they had been told not to discharge their urine to space to avoid disturbing the trajectory, they had to store it in bags.
Water condensed on the walls, though any condensation that may have been behind equipment panels  caused no problems, partly because of the extensive electrical insulation improvements instituted after the Apollo 1 fire.
Despite the accuracy of the transearth injection, the spacecraft slowly drifted off course, necessitating a correction.
Nevertheless, yet another burn was needed at , using the LM's reaction control system RCS thrusters, for The SM was jettisoned less than half an hour later, allowing the crew to see the damage for the first time, and photograph it.
They reported that an entire panel was missing from the SM's exterior, the fuel cells above the oxygen tank shelf were tilted, that the high-gain antenna was damaged, and there was a considerable amount of debris elsewhere.
The last problem to be solved was how to separate the lunar module a safe distance away from the command module just before reentry.
Grumman , manufacturer of the LM, assigned a team of University of Toronto engineers, led by senior scientist Bernard Etkin , to solve the problem of how much air pressure to use to push the modules apart.
The astronauts applied the solution, which was successful. Later helicopter surveys found no radioactive leakage. Ionization of the air around the command module during reentry would typically cause a four-minute communications blackout.
Paine , but Paine recommended the mission operations team. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.
We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima , which picked us up, because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were.
Paine to meet us, along with my wife Marilyn, Fred's wife Mary who being pregnant, also had a doctor along just in case , and bachelor Jack's parents, in lieu of his usual airline stewardesses.
Worldwide interest in the Apollo program was reawakened by the incident; television coverage was seen by millions.
Four Soviet ships headed toward the landing area to assist if needed,  and other nations offered assistance should the craft have to splash down elsewhere.
The rescue received more public attention than any spaceflight to that point, other than the first Moon landing on Apollo There were worldwide headlines, and people surrounded television sets to get the latest developments, offered by networks who interrupted their regular programming for bulletins.
Pope Paul VI led a congregation of 10, people in praying for the astronauts' safe return; ten times that number offered prayers at a religious festival in India.
Even more outside the U. The panel's departure exposed the sector to space, snuffing out the fire, and it probably hit the nearby high-gain antenna, disrupting communications to Earth for 1.
The report questioned the use of Teflon and other materials shown to be flammable in supercritical oxygen, such as aluminum, within the tank.
Nonetheless, the switches Beech used were not rated for 65 volts. The probability of damage from this was low, but it is possible that the fill line assembly was loose and made worse by the fall.
When it would not empty normally, the heaters in the tank were turned on to boil off the oxygen. For Apollo 14 and subsequent missions, the oxygen tank was redesigned, the thermostats being upgraded to handle the proper voltage.
The heaters were retained since they were necessary to maintain oxygen pressure. The stirring fans, with their unsealed motors, were removed, which meant the oxygen quantity gauge was no longer accurate.
This required adding a third tank so that no tank would go below half full. The quantity probe was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel.
The fuel cell oxygen supply valves were redesigned to isolate the Teflon-coated wiring from the oxygen. The spacecraft and Mission Control monitoring systems were modified to give more immediate and visible warnings of anomalies.
He took a leave of absence from NASA in and left the agency to enter politics, being elected to the House of Representatives in , but died of cancer before he could be sworn in.
Several experiments were completed even though the mission did not land on the Moon. A series of photographs of Earth, taken to test whether cloud height could be determined from synchronous satellites , achieved the desired results.
North American declined payment, noting that it had ferried three previous Grumman LMs to the Moon without compensation.
The CM was disassembled for testing and parts remained in storage for years; some were used for a trainer for the Skylab Rescue Mission.
That trainer was subsequently displayed at the Kentucky Science Center. Max Ary of the Cosmosphere made it a project to restore Odyssey ; it is on display there, in Hutchinson, Kansas.
Then, with the crew safely back on Earth, public apathy set in once again. William R. Launius wrote, "More than any other incident in the history of spaceflight, recovery from this accident solidified the world's belief in NASA's capabilities".
Lovell publicly complained about the movie, saying it was "fictitious and in poor taste". This was an accurate, if simplified, reconstruction of the events.
Following the flight, the crew planned to write a book, but they all left NASA without starting it. After Lovell retired in , he was approached by journalist Jeffrey Kluger about writing a non-fiction account of the mission.
Swigert died in and Haise was no longer interested in such a project. James Lovell, Kranz, and other principals have stated that this film depicted the events of the mission with reasonable accuracy, given that some dramatic license was taken.
For example, the film changes the tense of Lovell's famous follow-up to Swigert's original words from, "Houston, we've had a problem" to " Houston, we have a problem ".
Episodes began airing for Season 2, starting on March 8, , with episode 1, "Time bomb: Apollo 13", explaining the launch and the explosion.
Episode 2 details the denial and disbelief of Mission Control to the accident, with other episodes covering other aspects of the mission.
In advance of the 50th anniversary of the mission in , an Apollo in Real Time site for the mission went online, allowing viewers to follow along as the mission unfolds, view photographs and video, and listen to the conversations, not only between Houston and the astronauts, but between mission controllers on the audio loops.
Replica of the lunar plaque with Swigert's name that was to cover the one attached to Aquarius with Mattingly's name.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the spaceflight. For the film based upon it, see Apollo 13 film.
For other uses, see Apollo 13 disambiguation. Seventh crewed flight in the Apollo program, which failed to land on the Moon following an in-flight incident.
Odyssey ' s damaged service module , as seen from the lunar module Aquarius , hours before reentry. James A. Lovell, Jr.
John L. Swigert, Jr. Fred W. Haise, Jr. Apollo program. Houston, we've had a problem. Swigert and Lovell reporting the incident on April 14,  " Houston, we've had a problem ".
Play media. Lunar module Aquarius after it was jettisoned above the Earth. General Walter R. Hedrick Jr. Mark Director, Ames Research Center.
Retrieved August 18, December 21, Retrieved February 14, Space Flown Artifacts Chris Spain. Retrieved December 11, July 24, Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.
Retrieved December 8, Retrieved August 30, Rice University Office of Public Affairs. Retrieved October 5, Future US. Retrieved April 1, January Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved August 21, January 30, Retrieved December 5, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.
Retrieved January 6, Duke, Jr. Oral History". Retrieved December 17, Universe Today. Retrieved November 13, As the launch date approaches, Marilyn has a nightmare about her husband getting killed in space, but goes to the Kennedy Space Center the night before launch to see him off.
As the Saturn V rocket climbs through the atmosphere, a second stage engine cuts off prematurely, but the craft reaches its Earth parking orbit.
After the third stage fires to send Apollo 13 to the Moon, Swigert performs the maneuver to connect the command module Odyssey to the Lunar Module Aquarius and pull it away from the spent rocket.
Three days into the mission, the crew makes a television transmission, which the networks decline to broadcast live. After Swigert turns on the liquid oxygen tank stirring fans as requested, one of the tanks explodes, emptying its contents into space and sending the craft tumbling.
The other tank is soon found to be leaking. They attempt to stop the leak by shutting off fuel cells 1 and 3, but to no avail.
With the fuel cells closed, the Moon landing must be aborted, and Lovell and Haise must hurriedly power up Aquarius to use as a "lifeboat" for the return home, as Swigert shuts down Odyssey before its battery power runs out.
In Houston, Kranz rallies his team to come up with a plan to bring the astronauts home safely, declaring "failure is not an option".
Controller John Aaron recruits Mattingly to help him invent a procedure to restart Odyssey for the landing on Earth. As Swigert and Haise watch the Moon pass beneath them, Lovell laments his lost chance of walking on its surface, then turns their attention to the business of getting home.
With Aquarius running on minimal electrical power, the crew suffers freezing conditions, and Haise begins to feel ill and runs a moderate fever.
Swigert suspects Mission Control is withholding their inability to get them home; Haise angrily blames Swigert's inexperience for the accident; and Lovell quickly squelches the argument.
When carbon dioxide approaches dangerous levels, ground control must quickly invent a way to make the command module's square filters work in the Lunar Module's round receptacles.
With the guidance systems on Aquarius shut down, the crew must make a difficult but vital course correction by manually igniting the Lunar Module's engine.
Mattingly and Aaron struggle to find a way to turn on the command module systems without drawing too much power, and finally transmit the procedure to Swigert, who restarts Odyssey by transferring extra power from Aquarius.
When the crew jettisons the service module, they are surprised to see the extent of the damage. As they release Aquarius and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere, no one is sure that Odyssey ' s heat shield is intact.
The tense period of radio silence due to ionization blackout is longer than normal, but the astronauts report all is well and splash down in the Pacific Ocean.
As helicopters bring the three men aboard the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima for a hero's welcome, Lovell's voice-over describes the subsequent investigation into the explosion, and the careers of Haise, Swigert, Mattingly, and Kranz.
He wonders if and when mankind will return to the Moon. The real Jim Lovell appears as captain of the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima ; Howard had intended to make him an admiral, but Lovell himself, having retired as a captain, chose to appear in his actual rank.
In addition to his brother, Clint Howard, several other members of Ron Howard's family appear in the movie:. Brad Pitt was offered a role in the film, but turned it down to star in Se7en.
Jeffrey Kluger appears as a television reporter. Producers had written the role of Jim Lovell with Kevin Costner in mind because of his facial similarities with the main character.
Ultimately, Hanks was cast instead in that role because of his knowledge of Apollo and space histories. While planning the film, director Ron Howard decided that every shot of the film would be original and that no mission footage would be used.
Two individual Lunar Modules and two command modules were constructed for filming. While each was a replica, composed of some of the original Apollo materials, they were built so that different sections were removable, which enabled filming to take place inside the capsules.
Space Works also built modified Command and Lunar Modules for filming inside a Boeing KC reduced-gravity aircraft , and the pressure suits worn by the actors, which are exact reproductions of those worn by the Apollo astronauts, right down to the detail of being airtight.
When suited up with their helmets locked in place, the actors were cooled by air pumped into the suits, and so that they could breathe, exactly as in launch preparations for the real Apollo missions.
NASA offered the use of the control room for filming, but Howard declined, opting instead to make his own replica from scratch. The set was equipped with giant rear-screen projection capabilities and a complex set of computers with individual video feeds to all the flight controller stations.
The actors playing the flight controllers were able to communicate with each other on a private audio loop.
Howard anticipated difficulty in portraying weightlessness in a realistic manner. He discussed this with Steven Spielberg , who suggested using a KC airplane, which can be flown in such a way as to create about 23 seconds of weightlessness, a method NASA has always used to train its astronauts for space flight.
Howard obtained NASA's permission and assistance in filming in the realistic conditions aboard multiple KC flights.
The actors studied audiotapes from the mission, reviewed hundreds of pages of NASA transcripts, and attended a crash course in physics.
The score to Apollo 13 was composed and conducted by James Horner. The soundtrack was released in by MCA Records and has seven tracks of score, eight period songs used in the film, and seven tracks of dialogue by the actors at a running time of nearly seventy-eight minutes.
The music also features solos by vocalist Annie Lennox and Tim Morrison on the trumpet. All music is composed by James Horner , except where noted.
The site's critical consensus reads, "In recreating the troubled space mission, Apollo 13 pulls no punches: it's a masterfully told drama from director Ron Howard, bolstered by an ensemble of solid performances.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film in his review saying: "A powerful story, one of the year's best films, told with great clarity and remarkable technical detail, and acted without pumped-up histrionics.
It's easily Howard's best film. Janet Maslin made the film an NYT Critics' Pick, calling it an "absolutely thrilling" film that "unfolds with perfect immediacy, drawing viewers into the nail-biting suspense of a spellbinding true story.
Cleverly nostalgic in its visual style Rita Ryack 's costumes are especially right , it harks back to movie making without phony heroics and to the strong spirit of community that enveloped the astronauts and their families.
Amazingly, this film manages to seem refreshingly honest while still conforming to the three-act dramatic format of a standard Hollywood hit.
It is far and away the best thing Mr. Howard has done and Far and Away was one of the other kind.
Marilyn Lovell praised Quinlan's portrayal of her, stating she felt she could feel what Quinlan's character was going through, and remembered how she felt in her mind.
A 10th-anniversary DVD of the film was released in ; it included both the theatrical version and the IMAX version, along with several extras.
In , Apollo 13 was released on HD DVD and on April 13, it was released on Blu-ray as the 15th-anniversary edition on the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 13 accident.
The film depicts the crew hearing a bang quickly after Swigert followed directions from mission control to stir the oxygen and hydrogen tanks.
In reality, the crew heard the bang 93 seconds later. The film portrays the Saturn V launch vehicle being rolled out to the launch pad two days before launch.
In reality, the launch vehicle was rolled out on the Mobile Launcher using the crawler-transporter weeks before the launch date.
The movie depicts Swigert and Haise arguing about who was at fault. The show The Real Story: Apollo 13 broadcast on the Smithsonian Channel includes Haise stating that no such argument took place and that there was no way anyone could have foreseen that stirring the tank would cause problems.
The dialogue between ground control and the astronauts was taken nearly verbatim from transcripts and recordings, with the exception of one of the taglines of the film, " Houston, we have a problem.
According to audio of the air-to-ground communications, the actual words uttered by Jack Swigert were "Okay, Houston, we've had a problem here".
Ground control responded by saying, "This is Houston. Say again, please. One other incorrect dialogue is after the re-entry blackout.
The tagline "Failure is not an option", stated in the film by Gene Kranz, also became very popular, but was not taken from the historical transcripts.
The following story relates the origin of the phrase, from an e-mail by Apollo 13 Flight Dynamics Officer Jerry Bostick:.